Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women at the Intergrated Health Center in Mahajanga (Madagascar): A Preliminary Study

Francine Isabelle Rakotonindrina, Rivo Solotiana Rakotomalala, Mireille Anita Fenosoa Tsatoromila, Tahirimalala Rabenandrianina, Davidra Rajaonatahina, Odilon TIANDAZA, Norotiana RABESANDRATANA, Diavolana ANDRIANARIMANANA, Pierana RANDAOHARISON, Andriamiadana Luc RAKOTOVAO, Aimée Olivat RAKOTO ALSON, Andry RASAMINDRAKOTROKA, Zely RANDRIAMANANTANY, Lala Rasoamialy-Soa RAZANAKOLONA

Abstract


Serological screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women is not systematic in Madagascar. However, the urban lifestyle and the often precarious lifestyle of the population are a favourable factor in the onset of the disease. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women who came for an initial prenatal visit at the Integrated Health Center (IHC) Mahabibo, and to determine the socio-demographic factors that can influence the serological status of these patients in order to propose suggestions for improving the management of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Madagascar.We conducted a prospective, descriptive and analytical study of pregnant women in first prenatal visit at the IHC Mahabibo from May to July 2018. A questionnaire on risk factors and knowledge of the pathology was conducted to participants. They have benefited a blood sample for free serological screening of toxoplasmosis using the Rapid Lab® EIA technique. A second sample was taken after one month for pregnant women who came to 2nd prenatal visit. The biological study was carried out in the laboratory of the PZaGa Mahajanga University Hospital Center.

A total of 96 serologies were performed, including 58 screenings and 38 follow-ups.  The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 36.2%. We found 23.7% seroconversion suggestive of recent infection. The seropositivity of toxoplasmosis was 85.7% among pregnant women who consumed raw vegetables and 71.4% among those who ate undercooked meat (p>0,05).

Awareness of the risks of contamination, systematic serological surveillance and hygiene measures should be provided during prenatal visits.


Keywords


EIA, pregnant women, serology, toxoplasmosis

Full Text:

PDF

References


TORGERSON P, MASTROIACOVO P. The global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis: a systematique review. Bull World Health Organ 2013;91(7):501–8.

High Health Authority. Serological surveillance and prevention of toxoplasmosis and rubella during pregnancy. Argumentar HHA, France, 2009:82-3.

PAQUET C, YUDIN M, ALLEN V, BOUCHARD C, BOUCHER M and al. Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy: Prevention, screening and treatment. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2013; 35(1 suppl. élec. A) : S1–8.

ADOUBRYN K, OUHON J, NEMER J, YAPO C, ASSOUMOU A. Serological screening of toxoplasmosis acquired in women of childbearing age in Yopougon commune (Abidjan, Ivory Coast). Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2004 ; 97( 5) : 345-8.

DUBEY JP, JONES JL . Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States. Int J Parasitol. 2008 Sep;38(11):1257-78. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2008.03.007. Epub 2008 Apr 11.

LELONG B, RAHELIMINO B, CANDOLFI E, RAVELOJAONA B, VILLARD O, RASAMINDRAKOTROKA A, KIEN T. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in a population of pregnant women in Antananarivo (Madagascar). Bull Soc Pathol Exot 1995; 88 (1):46-9.

RAKOTOMALALA R S, RAKOTONINDRINA F I, FANOMEZANTSOA E, RAFILIPOJAONA F, RAZAFINDRAKOTO C and al. Toxoplasma gondii infestation among pregnant women In Mahajanga, Madagascar. International Journal of Medicine & Health Research 2019;5:issue 1.

BOISIER P. Approach to the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Tananarive. Study conducted at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar (IPM) on a sample of 2354 subjects. Bull Soc Path Ex 1996 ; 89 : 212-6.

PFISTER P, DROMIGNY J. Avidity of IgG anti Toxoplasma gondii. Study to establish a new decision-making tree in disease screening. Pasteur of Madagascar Arch Inst 2001; 67 (1&2) : 57-60

SAVI DE TOVE Y, HOUNTO A, VODOUHE M, D’OLIVEIRA A, AFFOLABI D and al. Seroprevalence and factors associated with toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in rural Benin. Pan African Medical Journal 2018 ; 29 : 112. doi:10.11604 /pamj.2018.29.112.14071.

NDIAYE D, SENE P, NDIAYE M, FAYE B, NDIAYE J and al. Changes in the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Dakar, Senegal from 2002 to 2006. Médecine tropicale 2011; 71 : 101-2.

DEJI-AGBOOLA A, BUSARI O, OSINUPEBI O, AMOO A. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic of Federal Medical Center, Lagos, Nigeria. Int J Biol Med Res 2011; 2(4): 1135 – 9.

BAMBA S, SOME D, CHEMIA C, GEERS R, GUIGUEMDE and al. Serological analysis of pergravid toxoplasmosis: risk assessment and prospects of prenatal screening at The University Hospital of Bobo Dioulasso in Burkina Faso. Pan African Medical Journal 2012; 12:43.

EL MANSOURI B, RHAJAOUI M, SEBTI F, AMARIR F, LABOUDI M and al. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the city of Rabat, Morocco. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2007 ; 100(4): 289-90.

GAMBA E, NAMBEI W, KAMANDJI L. Integrated HIV, syphilis and toxoplasmosis testing in pregnant women in Central African Republic. Med Sante Trop 2013 ; 23 :421-6. doi : 10.1684/mst.2013.0256.

AYI I, EDU S, APEA-KUBI K, BOAMAH D, BOSOMPEM K and al. Sero-epidemiology of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women in the greater Accra region of Ghana. Ghana Medical Journal 2010 ; 43( 3) :107–14.

BISVIGOU U, MICKOTO B, NGOUBANGOYE B, MAYI TSONGA S and al. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in a rural population in south-eastern Gabon. Parasite 2009 ; 16 : 240-2.

CONG W, DONG XY, MENG QF, ZHOU N, WANG XY and al. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women: a seroprevalence and case-control study in Eastern China. Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015: 170278. Doi : 10.1155/2015/170278.

DE PASCHALE M, AGRAPPI C, MANCO MT, CERULLI T, CLERICI P. Implementation of Screening for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnancy. J Clin Med Res. 2010 May 19; 2(3):112-6.

LEBECH M, LARSEN SO, PETERSEN E. Prevalence, incidence and geographical distribution of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pregnant women in Denmark. Scand J Infect Dis 1993; 25(6):751–6.

BULTEL C, DEROUIN F. New data on food risk related to Toxoplasma gondii. Bull Epidémiol Trim 2006 ; 22 : 1-2.

TOURDJMAN M, TCHEANDJIEU C, DE VALK H, GOULET V, LE STRAT Y. Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in France: evolution of seroprevalence and associated factors between 1995 and 2010, based on national perinatal surveys in Screenings during pregnancy and birth: recent epidemiological data. Bull Epidemiol Hebd 2015 ; 15-6 : 264-72.

WALLON M, GAUCHERAND P, AL KURDI M, PEYRON F. Toxoplasma infections in early pregnancy: consequences and management. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod 2002; 31:478-84.

GARABEDIAN C, LE GOARANT J, DELHAES L, ROULAND V, VAAST P and al. Periconceptional toxoplasmic seroconversion: about 79 cases. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod 2012 ; 41 :546-52.

LEJEUNE V. Repeated spontaneous miscarriages; etiological assessment and management of subsequent pregnancies. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod 2010; 395: F11-6.

DAVENEL S, GALAINE J, GUELET B, MARTEIL S, ROBERT-GAGNEUX F. Congenital toxoplasmosis in France, state of the art in 2009. J Pharm Clin 2010 ; 29 (1) : 5-30.

DEGBE M, TETE-BENISSAN A, MAMAN H, KULO A, BATAWUI B, AKLIKOKOU K and GBEASSOR M. Toxoplasmosis epidemiology in Togo: risk factors in the capital and its cities. Int J Biol Chem Sci 2018 ; 12(1): 479-90.

FRENKEL, J.K., RUIZ, A., CHINCHILLA, M. Soil survival of Toxoplasma oocysts in Kansas and Costa Rica. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1975, 24, 439-43.

DUBEY JP. Duration of immunity to shedding of toxoplasmagondii oocysts by cats. Parasitol 1995; 81: 410-5.

COOK AJ, GILBERT RE. BUFFOLANO W et al. Sources of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case control study. European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis. Br Med J 2000; 321:142-7.

BABAIE J, AMIRI S, MOSTAFAVI E, HASSAN N, PEYMAN et al. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Pregnant Women in Northeast Iran. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2013;20(11):1771-3.

KAMAL A, AHMED A, ABDELLATIF M, TAWFIK M, HASSAN E. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt. The Korean journal of parasitology 2015; 53(5): 605.

AWOKE K, NIBRET E, MUNSHEA A. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. APJTM. 2015; 8(7): 549-54.

DARDE M, PEYRON F. Toxoplasmose In: DENIS F. Les bactéries, champignons et parasites transmissibles de la mère à l'enfant, John Libbey Eurotest 2002: 317-47.

HILL D, DUBEY J. Toxoplasma gondii : transmission, diagnosis and prevention. Clin Microbiol Jnfect 2002 ; 8 : 634-40.

KAPPERUD G, JENUM A, STRAY-PEDERSEN B, MELBY K, ESKILD A et al. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy. Results of a prospective case-control study in Norway. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 144: 405-12.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Francine Isabelle Rakotonindrina

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.