Current practice of cytology in the diagnosis of acute leukemias in Madagascar



Introduction - Acute leukemias are clone proliferation of cells blocked at a stage of maturation. These pathologies are frequent in Western countries with an incidence of 2.5 to 3.5 / 100 000 inhabitants/year. Their frequency is about 25.5% in Madagascar. In Madagascar, diagnosis and classification of acute leukemias is cytological because our laboratories haven't immunophenotyping, molecular biology and karyotype. We share through this study our daily practice in front of acute leukemia.Method - We conducted a prospective descriptive study of cases of acute leukemia diagnosed between January and April 2017 at hematological laboratory of Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona Antananarivo hospital (Madagascar)Results - During this period, 16 cases of acute leukemia were diagnosed in our unit. Blood and bone marrow smear cytological study revealed 6 cases (37.5%) of ALL2, 4 cases (25.0%) of AML2, 2 cases (12.5%) of AML3, 2 cases (12.5%) of AML4, 1cas (6.25%) of AML5 and 1 case (6.25%) of ALL1.Conclusion - Cytology is crucial in malignant hemopathies, particularly in low resource countries, although the need for molecular biology and immunophenotyping is well established.


Acute leukemia – clone cells proliferation;cytology;diagnosis;classification

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