Diagnosis, classification and cytopenic complications of acute leukemias seen in JRA University Hospital hematology laboratory

Marie Osé Michael Harioly Nirina, Andry Toky Rakotoarivo, Anjaramalala Sitraka Rasolonjatovo, Andrindrantosoa Rasamoelina, Aimée Olivat Rakoto Alson, Andry Rasamindrakotroka

Abstract


Abstract

Introduction: Acute leukemias (AL) are a group of hematologic disorders characterized by malignant clonal bone marrow precursors proliferation blocked on stage of differentiation known as "blasts". Our aims were to describe diagnosis, classification and cytopenic complications of AL.

Methods: We performed a descriptive retrospective study of patients who performed a myelogram at Hematology Laboratory of Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona (JRA) Antananarivo University Hospital. Diagnosis of AL was made when percentage of blood or bone marrow blasts greater than 20%. For classification, we used cytological and cytochemical criteria of the FAB group.Results: 714 myelograms were performed, hematological malignancies had 16.8% of cases (120/714). Of the 120 cases of hematological malignancies, 72.5% (86/120) were AL. Patients with leukemia were 2 ½ months and 79 years old with an average of 28 years. Children under 15 years old were most affected (45.3%; 38/86)

According to FAB classification, acute myeloid leukemia type 1 (AML1) accounted for 31.6% (18/578) of cases. ALL2 was represented at 84.6% (22/26) of ALLs. Regarding abnormalities of hemogram, thrombocytopenia, anemia and leukopenia were found respectively in 94.2%, 86% and 20.9% of cases.

Conclusion: ALs are rare pathologies. They affect all ages with a higher frequency in children under 15 years old. Myeloid types are more common. Cytopenias and clinical syndromes should not be neglected as they can be life-threatening.


Keywords


acute leukemia, hemogram, myelogram, FAB, cytopenia.

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