Awareness and Perceived Indicators of Climate Change among Seaweed Farmers in Jambiani Village, Unguja Island

Mohamed M.S Rijja, Amelia S. Buriyo


Climate change remains to be the biggest challenge threatening to undo sustainability of socio-economic activities. The study investigated seaweed farmers’ awareness and their perceived indicators of climate change in Jambiani village, Unguja Island. A cross sectional study was adopted to interview 100 seaweed farmers between September and November, 2016. A mixed approach was used, of which primary data collection tools includes Questionnaires with close and open-ended questions and Focus Group Discussion, and secondary climate data was integrated. The results indicated that, majority (93%) seaweed farmers were aware of the changes in climate, and 97.75% perceived elevation of seawater temperature, 71.76% perceived an increase in intensity of ocean waves and 93.37% south- easterly (Kusi) monsoon wind, 84.58% longer periods of north-easterly (Kaskazi) monsoon winds and 78 % perceived changes in distribution and disappearance of near shoreline fringing reefs as climate change indicators. Analysis of empirical secondary data from TMA showed elevation of terrestrial and seawater temperature by 1.22°C (y=0.03x+30.281) and 0.62°C (y=0.0219x+27.256) respectively as well as big ocean wave heights navigating between months of June and September of the year. Seaweed farmers are aware of the changes in weather and climate and capable to correctly identify and associates different environment-related uncertainties to climate changes, but lack expertise in proper use and integration of various climate instability situations into suitable and appropriate farming practices for improved production. Thus, the study recommends introduction of insurance schemes to the industry as resilience mechanisms to climate related changes in seaweed industry and extension services through extension officers meant to offer technical education and services to seaweed farmers on the best adjustment ways to on-going environmental and weather changes that meant to safeguard seaweed industry.


Climate Change, Jambiani Village, Seaweed Farming, Unguja Island.

Full Text:



Ask, E.I. (2006) Cultivating Cottonii and Spinosum: A “how to” guide, In: A.T. Critchley, M. Ohno and D.B. Largo (eds.) World Seaweed Resources – An Authoritative Reference System. ETI Information Services, UK. 80 pp.

Bitsch, V. (1998). Focus Group Discussion as a Research and Extension Method: The Case of Personnel Management Issues in Horticultural Business. Acta Hortic. 655, pp 461-469.

Boko, M., Niang, I., Nyong, A., Vogel, C., Githeko, A., Medany, M., Osman-Elasha, B., Tabo, R., Yanda, P. (2007). Africa. In: M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (Editors), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contributions of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, pp 433-467.

Brown, O., Hammill, A., & McLeman, R. (2007). Climate change as a new security threat: implication for Africa. International Affair 83 (6): 1141-1154.

Bryman, A. (2008) Social Research Methods. 3rd. edition. Oxford University Press. 696 pp.

Eklof J.S., Msuya F.E., Lyimo T.J and Buriyo A.S (2012). Seaweed farming in Chwaka Bay: A sustainable Alternative in Aquaculture? In people Nature and Research in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania, de la Torre-Castro, M. and T.J Lyimo(eds). Pp 213-233.

Ericksen, S., Aldunce, P., Bahinipati, C. S., Martins, R. D., Molefe, J. I., Nhemachena, C., O'brien, K., Olorunfem, F., Park, J., Sygna, L., Ulsrud, K. (2011). When not every response to climate change is a good one: Identifying principles for sustainable adaptation. Climate and Development, 3(1): 7-20.

Erika, D. (2011). "Seaweed Farmer Education: Is it enough to sustain the Industry? Analyzing the Status of Stakeholder Investment in Muungoni and Jambiani, Unguja". Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection. Paper 1195, 31 pp.

Hayashi, L., Hutado Q., A., Msuya, F. E., Bleicher-Lhonneur, G., & Critchley, A. (2010). A Review of Kappaphycus Farming: Prospects and Constraints. In J. Seckbach, R. Einav, & A. Israel (Eds.), Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments, pp 251-280.

Hurtado, A. Q. (2013). Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming in the Philippines. In D. Valderrama, J. Cai, N. Hishamunda & N. Ridler, eds. Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed

(ICMZ) Intergrated Coastal Zone Management (2009). The status of Zanzibar Coastal Resources toward the Development of Integrated Coastal Management Strategies and Action Plan. Department of Environment/MACEMP.

IPCC, (2007a). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, UK, pp 34-250.

IPCC, (2007b). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hansen, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 315-356.

IPCC, (2007c). "Summary for Policymakers" Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp 2-10.

IPCC, TAR (2001). Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, IPCC Third Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press. International Panel on Climate Change (2007). Climate change: synthesis report summary for policymakers, Workgroup contribution to the fourth Assessment Report at IPCC Plenary, XXVII: pp 12-17.

Kothari, C.K. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques 2nd Revised Edition, New Age International (P) limited, New Delhi, 401 pp.

Kronen, M. (2013). Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming in the Solomon Islands. In D. Valderrama, J. Cai, N. Hishamunda and N. Ridler, eds. Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming. Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 580 Rome, pp147-161.

Lyimo, J.G., Ngana, J.O., Liwenga, E.T., & Maganga, F. (2013). Climate change, impacts and adaptations in the coastal communities in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania. Environmental Economics, 4(1): 63-71.

Makame, O.M. (2013). Vulnerability and Adaptation of Zanzibar East Coast Communities to Climate Variability and Change and Other Interacting Stressor. PhD Thesis, Rhodes University.

McClanahan, R.T (1994). Seasonality in East Africa’s coastal waters. Marine Ecology Progress Report. 44:190-199.

Msuya, F.E. (2006). “The Impact of Seaweed Farming on the Social and Economic Structure of Seaweed Farming Communities in Zanzibar, Tanzania.” In A.T. Critchley, M. Ohno & D.B. Largo (Eds.), World Seaweed Resources: An Authoritative Reference System. Amsterdam: ETI information services, Wokingham, UK, p 27.

Msuya, F.E. (2006a). The seaweed Cluster Initiatives in Zanzibar, Tanzania. In Mwamila B.L.M and Temu A.K (editors). Proceedings of the 3rd Regional Conference on Innovation Systems and Innovative Clusters in Africa, pp 246-260.

Msuya, F.E., & Salum, D. (2007). Effect of cultivation duration, seasonality, nutrients, air temperature and rainfall on carrageenan properties and substrata studies of the seaweeds Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Technical report WIOMSA-MARG I No. 2007–06, 23 pp.

Msuya, F.E. Shali, M. Sullivan, B. Crawford, B. Tobey, J & Mmochi, A (2007a). A comparative analysis of two Seaweed Farming methods in Tanzania. Sustainable Coastal Communities and ecosystems Program. Coastal resources Center, University of Rhode Island and the Western Indian Ocean Marine science association. 27pp

Msuya, F.E (2011). The impact of seaweed farming on the socioeconomic status of coastal communities in Zanzibar, Tanzania. World Aquaclture Society 42 (3): 45-48.

Msuya, F.E. (2012). A Study of Working Conditions in the Zanzibar Seaweed Farming Industry. Women in Informal Employment. Available at accessed on 19/05/2016.

Msuya, F.E. (2013). Effects of stocking density and additional nutrients on growth of the commercially farmed seaweeds Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii in Zanzibar Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Natural and Applied sciences, 4 (1): 605-612

Msuya, F.E. (2013a). Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming in the United Republic of Tanzania. In D. Valderrama, J. Cai, N. Hishamunda & N. Ridler, eds. Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming. Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 580. Rome, pp 115–146.

Msuya, F.E, Buriyo, A., Omar, I., Pascal, B., Narrain, K., Ravina, J.J.M., Mrabu, E., Wakibia, J.G. (2014). Cultivation and utilisation of red seaweeds in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) Region. Journal of Applied Phycology, 26 (2): 699-705.

Mustelin, A., Asseid, B., Haji, T., Khamis, M., Klein, R., Mzee, A., & Sitari, T. (2009). Practical measures to tackle climate change: Coastal forest buffer zone and shoreline change in Zanzibar-Tanzania. Department of Geography University of Turku, Finland, 106 pp.

Mustelin, J., Klein, R., Assaid, B., Sitari, T., Khamis, M., Mzee, A. & Haji, T. (2010). Understanding current and future vulnerability in coastal settings: community perceptions and preferences for adaptation in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Population & Environment, (31): 371-398.

Obura, D., Suleiman, M., Motta, H., & Schleyer, M. (2000). Status of Coral Reefs in East Africa: Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa and Tanzania. In:Wilkinson C. (ed.) Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2000. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Queensland, Australia.

Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar (RoZ), Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources, Livestock and Fisheries (2016).

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, D. (2007). Research Methods for Business Students. 4th edition. Prentice Hall, London. Pearson Education Limited. pp. 226.

Shaughnessey, J., Zechmeister, E., & Zechmeister, J. (2000). Research methods in Psychology. Boston: McGraw Hill.

Stemler, S. (2001). An Overview of Content Analysis. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation.

Tanzania Meteorological Authority (2016). Secondary Ocean and terrestrial temperature and ocean wave.

Trono, G.C & Valdestamon, R.G (1994). New aspects in the Ecology and Culture of Kappahycus and Eucheuma. The Korean journal of phycology. 9(2): 205-216.

URT (2008). United Republic of Tanzania state of the environment report, Division of Environment, Vice- President’s Office, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, pp. 292.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Mohamed M.S Rijja, Amelia S. Buriyo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.