Biochar Mitigates Cadmium Stress on Alfalfa Seeds During Germination

Ibrahim M. Zeid, Ghazi S.M, Shedeed Z.A, Doaa Mahmoud Nabawy

Abstract


Cadmium (Cd+2) is a ubiquitous toxic heavy metal (HMs) in the environment. Cadmium chloride was used in three concentrations (0.001, 1, and 5 mM) in presence and absence of Biochar (BC) to evaluate the efficiency of BC in remediation of the Cd toxicity on seed germination. Germination percentage, radicle length, fresh and dry weight gradually decreased with increasing Cd concentration and completely inhibited at 5 mM CdCl2. Seedling vigor index (SVI) and metal tolerance index (MTI) decreased, while phyto-toxicity (%) increased with increasing Cd concentration to become 100% at 5 mM CdCl2. Cd-stress increased malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and proline content, whereas the total soluble sugars, total soluble proteins, DNA and RNA content decreased. Activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX) ascorbic acid oxidase (ASAO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) increased under Cd-stress conditions. On the other hands, Cd negatively affected α-, and β-amylases and protease enzymes. Cd application also caused a great alteration in the permeability of membranes through increasing ion leakage and lipid peroxidation. Application of BC significantly alleviated the inhibitory effects of Cd and consequently, increased germination percentage, SVI and MTI. Phytotoxicity and inhibition value of radicle decreased by BC treatment to become 50% at 5 mM CdCl2. Increasing the germination percentage by BC treatment was associated with increasing the activity of the antioxidants and the hydrolytic enzymes under Cd stress.


Keywords


amylase; antioxidant enzymes; H2O2; MDA; Nucleic acids; Protease.

Full Text:

PDF

References


REFERENCES

Agrawal, S. B., Mishra, S, (2009). Effects of supplemental ultraviolet-Band cadmium on growth, antioxidant sand yield of Pisum sativum L. Ecotoxicol. Environ.Saf. 72, 610–618.

De Maria, S. Puschenreiter. M., Rivelli, A. R., (2013). Cadmium accumulation and physiological response of sunflower plants to Cd during the vegetative growing cycle. In Plant Soil Environment, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 254–261.

Curguz, V.G., Raicevic, V., Veselinovic, M., Tabakovic-Tosic, M., Vilotic, D., (2012). Influence of heavy metals on seed germination and growth of PiceaabiesL.Karst. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 12 (2), 355–361.

Rascio, N., Navari-Izzo, F., (2011). Heavy metal hyper-accumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting? Plant Sci. 180 (2), 169–181.

Liu, T.T., Wu, P., Wang, L.H., Zhou, Q., (2011). Response of soybean seed germinationto cadmium and acid rain. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 144 (1–3), 1186–1196.

Mahmood, T., Islam, K.R., Muhammad, S., (2007). Toxic effects of heavy metals on early growth and tolerance of cereal crops. Pak. J. Bot. 39, 451–462.

Bailly, C., (2004). Active oxygen species and antioxidant in seed biology. Seed Sci. Res. 14, 93–107.

PazeFerreiro J., Lu H., Fu S., Méndez A., Gascó G., (2014): Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: A review. Solid Earth, 5: 65–75.

Li, H., M. Jiang, L. L. Che, L. Nie, and Z. M. Yang, (2012). BjHO-1 is involved in the detoxification of heavy metal in India mustard (Brassica juncea), BioMetals, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1269–1279.

Wu, W., Yang, M., Feng, Q., McGrouther, K., Wang, H., Lu, H., and Chen, Y., (2012). Chemical characterization of rice straw-derived biochar for soil amendment, Biomass Bioenerg., 47, 268–276.

Lu, H.L., Zhang, W.H., Yang, Y.X, (2012). Relative distribution of Pb2+ sorption mechanisms by sludge-derived biochar. Water Res. 46, 854–862.

Mohammad I. A., Adel R.A. Usman, A. H., El-Naggar, A. A. Aly, Hesham M. I., Salem E., and Abdulrasoul A., (2015). Conocarpus biochar as a soil amendment for reducing heavy metal availability and uptake by maize plants.Saudi J Biol Sci. 22(4): 503–511.

Abdul-Baki, A.A., Anderson, J.D, (1973). Vigour determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci. 13, 630–633.

Chou C.H. and H.J. Lin, (1976). Autointoxication mechanism of mechanism of Oriza sativa L. Phytotoxic effects of decomposing rice residues in soil, J. Chem. Ecol., 2, 353- 367.

Turner, R. C. & Marshal, C., (1972). Accumulation of Zink by subcellular fraction of some root Agroticsteneys in relation to zink tolerance. New Phyton. 71, 671-676.

Rick W, Stegbauer HP, (1974). Alpha amylase measurement of reducing groups. In H.V. Bergmeryer (ed.), Methods of enzymatic analysis, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Academic press, New York. pp. 885-890.

Lowry, O.H., N.S. Rosebrough., A.L. Farrand and R.J. Randall, (1951). Protein measurement with Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193, 263- 275.

Góth, L., (1991). A simple method for determination of serum catalase activity and revision of reference range. Clin. Chim. Acta. 196:143-152.

Chance, M., and A.C. Maehly, (1955). Assay of catalases and peroxidases. Meth. Enzymol. 2: 764-817.

Farkas, G.L., and Z. Kiraly, (1958). “Enzymology aspects of plant disease I: Oxidative enzymes”, Phytopath. Z. 31: 251-272.

Maxwell, D.P., and D.F. Bateman, (1967). Changes in the activities of some oxidases in extracts of Rhizoctonia infected bean hypocotyles in relation to lesion maturation. - Phytopathol. 57:132-135.

Mayer, A.M., and E. Harel, (1979). Polyphenol oxidases in plants. Phytochemistry. 18: 193-215.

Umbreit, W.W., R.H. Burris., J.F. Stauffer., P.P. Cohen., W.J. Johnse., G.A. Lee Page., and V.R. Potter, (1959). Schneider, W.C.: Manometric Technique. – Burgess Publishing Company, Manneapolis.

Bates, L.S., R.P. Waldren and I.D. Teare, (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil. 39:205–207.

Marmur, J., (1961). A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from microorganisms. Bot. J., 208-18.

Dische Z, Schwartz Z (1973) Thin Layer Chromatography. Microchem. Acta, 2, 13. Cited by: Stahal, E. (ed), 2nd Edn, Springer Verlage, Berlin.

Ashwell, G, (1957). Methods in Enzymology. III. Inter-Science Publishers, Inc.New York.

Gong, H. J., Chen, K. M., Zhao, Z. G., Chen, G. C. and Zhou, W. J., (2008). Effects of Silicon on Defense of Wheat against Oxidative Stress under Drought at Different Developmental Stages. Biol. Plant., 52: 592–596.

Zhou, W. J. and Leul, M., (1998). Uniconazole-induced Alleviation of Freezing Injury in Relation to Changes in Hormonal Balance, Enzyme Activities and Lipid Peroxidation in Winter Rape. Plant Growth Regul., 26: 41–47.

Heath, R.L. and L. Packer, (1968). Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts. I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 125: 189-198.

Zwiazek, J.J., and T.J. Blake, (1991). Early detection of membrane injury in black spruce (Pkea manana). Can. J. For. Res. 21: 401 -404.

Snedecor, G.W., and W.G. Cochran, (1980). Statistical Methods. 6thEdn., Iowa, State University Press, Ames.

Kabir M., Iqbal MZ., Shafigh M., Faroogi Z.R., (2008). Reduction in germination and seedling growth of Thespesiapopulnea L. caused by lead and cadmium treatments. Pak. J. Bot., 40(6): 2419-2426.

Vijayaragavan M, Prabhahar C, Sureshkumar J, Natarajan A, Vijayarengan P, Sharavanan S, (2011). Toxic effect of cadmium on seed germination, growth and biochemical contents of cowpea (Vignaunguiculata l.) plants, International Multidisciplinary Research ; 1/5:01-06.

Isak Rajjak Shaikh, Parveen Rajjak Shaikh, Rafique Ahmed Shaikh and Alamgir Abdulla Shaikh., (2013). Phytotoxic effects of Heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Mn and Zn) on Wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) Seed Germination and Seedlings growth in Black Cotton Soil of Nanded, India. Res. J. Chem. SciVol. 3(6), 14-23.

Ouariti, O., N. Boussama, M. Zarrouk, A. Cherif and M.H. Ghorbal. (1997). Cadmium-and copper-induced changes in tomato membrane lipids. Phytochemistry 45: 1343-1350.

Zeid I. M., Ghazi, S.M., and Nabawy, D.M., (2013). Alleviation of heavy metals toxicity in waste water used for plant irrigation. Intl. J. Agron. Plant. Prod. Vol., 4 (5), 976-983.

Liu, D., W. Jiang., W. Wang., F. Zhao and C. Lu, (1994). Effects of lead on root growth, cell division, and nucleolus of Allium cepa. Environ. Pollut. 86:1-4.

Prasad, M.N.V. and K. Strzalka, (2002). Physiology and Biochemistry of heavy metal toxicity and tolerance in plants. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 82: 6755–6759.

Kaushalya, G., J. Veena and B. Shelly, (2005). Effect of chromium (VI) on growth and lipid components in developing seeds of Brassica juncea. Ind. J. Plant Physiol. 10(3): 241-247.

Noctor G., De Paepe R. & Foyer C.H., (2007). Mitochondrial redox biology and homeostasis in plants. Trends Plant. Sci. 12: 125–134.

El-Maarouf, B. H. & Bailly C., (2008). Oxidative signaling in seed germination and dormancy. Plant Signal. Behav. 3: 175–182.

Shafiq M, Iqbal M.Z., Mohammad A., (2008). Effect of lead and cadmium on germination and seedling growth of Leucaenaleucocephala. J Appl Sci Environ; 12(2):61-68.

Bohra A., and Sanadhya D., (2015). Phytotoxic Effects of Cadmium on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of (Brassica junceaL.CzernCoss) cv. International Research of Biological Sciences. Vol. 4(5), 80-86, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.

Soudek, P., Š. Petrová, and T. Vaněk, (2015). Increase of Metal Accumulation in Plants Grown on Biochar – Biochar Ecotoxicity for Germinating Seeds. I J E S D, Vol. 6, No. 7.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 doaa mahmoud nabwy

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.