Conservation Threats of Re-introduced Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) in Hirapurphanta of Shuklaphanta National Park, Kanchanpur, Nepal

Lata Pant, Suraj Prasad Joshi


The study of Blackbucks at Hirapurphanta was carried out through bi-seasonal vegetation analysis (pre-monsoon and post-monsoon), parasitological analysis, direct observation, questionnaire survey and secondary data collection. The field work was completed from December of 2017 to December of 2018. Sedimentation and centrifuging methods were applied for parasitological examinations. The study reported that the Relative Cover (RC) value for Imperata cylindrica, highest, as 24.17% in average, followed by Cynodon dactylon 12.96%, Digitaria setigera as 10.06% and so on. The ecological (realized) population density was 2.78 individuals/ha though the crude population density was found to be 1.65 individuals/ha. Parasites reported from the blackbuck were Eimeria spp. (both with micropyle and without micropyle), Strongyloides spp., and Strongyle spp. while that from livestock were Eimeria spp., Strongyle spp., and Oxyuris spp. The result obtained showed that there are common parasites between Blackbuck and Livestock. This implies that there is the chance of parasite transference from the livestock to the blackbuck which seems challenging in its conservation. The index of similarity between the parasites of blackbuck and that of livestock was found to be 0.67 and the calculated male to female sex ratio for adult is calculated to 1:0.86 and for sub-adults is 1:1.

Therefore, the study recommend in the eradication of the invasive species that altering the suitable habitat of blackbucks, making emergency health-post near the captivity and the bucks should be safeguarded from the possible attack of different harmful animals and strongly recommends in giving higher concern in its conservation from the government.


Blackbuck, Conservation, Fecal samples, Livestock, Parasites, Threats

Full Text:



Bajracharya, S., 2009. An assessment of crops damage by wild animals in the southern parts of Shivapuri National Park. A thesis submitted to Department of Zoology, T. U. Kathmandu, Nepal.

Ban, S., 2012. Conservation Status of Blackbuck (Antilope Cervicapra Linneaus, 1758) at Khairapur, Bardia, Nepal. M.Sc. Thesis. Central Department of Zoology. Tribhuvan University. Kathmandu.

Bhandari, K., 1994. An assessment of food habit and habitat utilisation of Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) in Bardia. A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment for M. Sc. in Zoology, Tribhuwan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Bhatta, B., 2008. Daily Activities, Distribution, and Food Preference of Swamp Deer in SWR, Nepal. B.Sc. Thesis submitted Institute of Forestry, Pokhara.

Bhatta, S.R., 2008. People and Blackbuck: Current Management Challenges and Opportunities.

BK, D.B., 2016. Daily activities, Feeding Ecology and Food Preference of Re-introduced Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) in Hirapurphanta of the Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve (SWR), Kanchanpur, Nepal. A thesis submitted to the Tribhuwan University for the completion of B.Sc in Zoology from Siddhanath Science Campus.

Chauhan, N. P. S., & Singh, R., 1990. Crop Damage by Overabundant Populations of Nilgai and Blackbuck in Haryana (India) and its Management. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Vertebrate Pest Conference 1990. pp. 218–220.

Corbet, G. B., & Hill, J. E., 1992. The Mammals of Indo-Malayan Region: A Systemic Review. Natural History Museum Publications. Oxford University Press. New York, USA.

Dabadghao, P.M., & Shankarnarayan, K. A., 1973. The Grass Cover of India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, xii+713pp.

Daubenmire, R.F., 1968. Plant Communities: A textbook of Ecology. Haper and Raw, Newyork, USA.

Elleman, J., & Morrison-Scott, T., 1951. Checklist of Palearctic and Indian Mammals, 1758 to 1946. British Museum, London.

Gehlot., 2010. Project technical report, Motivation of communities for wildlife conservation (Blackbuck) in and outside the protected areas in Western Rajasthan, India.

Grzimek, B., 1972. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Mammal. Van Nostand Reinhold publication, Newyork. 13: 442:-443.

Jhala, Y. V., 1997. Seasonal Effects on the Nutritional Ecology of Blackbuck Antelope cervicapra. Journal of Applied Ecology Vol. 34, No. 6 (Dec., 1997), pp. 1348-1358.

Jhala, Y. V., & Isvaran, K., 2016. Behavioural Ecology of a Grassland Antilope, the Blackbuck Antilope cervicapra: Linking Habitat, Ecology and Behaviour. The Ecology of Large Herbivores in South and Southeast Asia pp 151-176 (ECOLSTUD, volume 225).

Khanal, L., 2006. Population status, general behaviour and conservation practices of Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra, Linneaus, 1758) at Khairapur, Bardiya, Nepal. M.Sc. Thesis. Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Khanal, L., & Chalise, M. K., 2010. Population Status of Black buck at Khairapur, Bardia Nepal. Journal of Natural History Museum, TU. Vol. 25. Pp. 266-275.

Khanal, L., & Chalise, M. K., 2011. Impacts of livestock grazing on Blackbuck at BCA, Bardiya. Special issue on the occasion of 16th Wildlife Week, 2068. DNPWC/Govt. of Nepal, 14-22 p.

Khanal, P., 2002. Study on the ecology, behaviour and habitat options for the conservation of last remaining Blackbuck population in Nepal by using GIS. A Dissertation Submitted in partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree in Environmental Sciences, Kathmandu University, Nepal.

Khatri, T.B., 1993. Status and Food habits of Nilgai (Bocelaphus tragocamelus) in Royal Bardia National Park. M. Sc. Thesis. Agricultural University of Norway. 66pp.

Kumar, D. R. P., & Zutshi, B., 2013. Periodical Census to Monitor Blackbucks Population at Jayamangali Blackbuck Conservation Reserve, Mydanahalli, Tumkur Dt, Karnataka, India.

Kunwar, A., 2015. Habitat Assessment, Conflict Evaluation and Conservation Awareness of Blackbuck, Antelope cervicapra, in Blackbuck Conservation Area, Bardia, Nepal. A report submitted to the Rufford Small Grant for the fulfillment of the PhD degree.

Long, J. L., 2003. Introduced mammals of the world: their history, distribution and influence, CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia, pp. 486–7.

Mahato, A.K.R., Ramakrishna, & Raziuddin, M., 2010. Status, Ecology & Behaviour of Antilope cervicapra (Linnaeus, 1758) in Proposed Community Reserve for Blackbuck,Ganjam District, Orissa, India. 1-160, (Published by the Director, Zool. Surv. India, Kolkata)

Margules, C. R., & Pressey, R. L., 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405: 243- 253.

Mulualem, G., & Tesfahunegny, W., 2016. Review of Key Wildlife Threats Factors from Literature and Observation Perspectives: A Way forward for Sustainable Wildlife Genetic Resource Conservation Practices in Ethiopia. The Journal of Zoology Studies 2016; 3(5): 01-12.

Mungall, E.C., 1978. The Indian Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra): A Texas view. Kleberg Studies in Natural Resources. p. 184.

NTNC., 2015. Annual report 2015, Natural Trust for Nature Conservation. Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Pradhan., 2007. A Landscape Approach in Conserving Large Mammals: A Case Study from Western Teri, Nepal.

Ranjitsinh, M. K., 1989. The Indian Blackbuck. Nataraj Publishers, Dehradun; India.

Sagar, H.S.S., & Antoney, P.U., 2017. Measuring Indian Blackbuck (Antilopecervicapra) abundance at Basur Amruth Mahal Kaval Conservation Reserve, Chikkamagaluru, Southern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(7): 1046810472;

Schaller, G.B., 1967. The deer and the Tiger. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Shrestha, T. K., 1997. Mammals of Nepal. Publisher: Mrs. Bimala Shrestha. Kathmandu, Nepal. Pp. 223-228.

Soulsby, E. J. L., 1982. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals (7th edition): E. J. L. Soulsby, 1982. London: Baillière Tindall, 809 pp., illus. ISBN 0-7020-0820-6.

Sukumar, R., 1990. Ecology of Asian Elephant in Southern India, feeding habit and crop raiding pattern. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6: 33-35.

Tamang, K. M., & Shrestha, S. K., 1998. Study of Blackbuck in Khairapur, Bardia, Nepal. A Case study of an endangered species on the verge of extinction. IOF/IRTTO project, Pokhara, Nepal.

WWF., 2014. WWF Nepal Annual Report 2014. World Wildlife Fund- Nepal.

Zobel, D.B., Yadav, U.K., Jha, P.K., & Behan, M.J., 1987. A Practical Manual for Ecology. Rani printing Press, Kathmandu, Nepal. 149pp.


DNPWC., 2012. Chitwan National Park. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal.

DNPWC., 2016. Chitwan National Park. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Lata Pant, Suraj Prasad Joshi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.