The Role of Temperature on Biodiesel Production from Palm and Waste Cooking Oils Catalyzed By Silica-Titania Catalyst

Tamara Putri Raffeza, Ananda Putra, Latisma Dj, Budhi Oktavia, Desy Kurniawati, Sri Benti Etika, Rita Sundari, Umar Kalmar Nizar


The optimation of reaction temperature  on biodiesel production from palm and waste cooking oils has been investigated in the range of 50-70oC. The reaction has used silica-titania catalyst obtained from solid state reaction between solid precursors of silica and titania. The biodiesel products have been characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transformation Infra Red) and examination of several properties such as density, flow rate, and acid number. The results show the FTIR spectra of biodiesel products are very similar with that of palm oil or waste cooking oil. The biodiesel product from palm oil shows an optimum temperature of 65oC. At this temperature, it shows the lowest density with the highest flow rate and the highest percentage of conversion, i.e. 33.33%. The biodiesel product from waste cooking oil shows the optimum temperature of 55oC that it performs the lowest density with the highest flow rate and the highest percentage of conversion, i.e. 57.1%.


Biodiesel; Silica-Titania Catalyst; Density; Flow Rate; Temperature; Acid Value;.

Full Text:



A. Hidayat, Rochmadi, K. Wijaya, A. Nurdiawati, W. Kurniawan, H. Hinode, K. Yoshikawa, and A. Budiman, “Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate with High Amount of Free Fatty Acids Using Coconut Shell Char Based Catalyst,” Energy Procedia, vol. 75, pp. 969–974, 2015.

USDA, “Global Oilseed Consumption Continues to Grow Despite Slowing Trade and Production,” 2019.

A. Thahar, “Pasar Minyak Nabati Dunia.”

E. N. Ali and C. I. Tay, “Characterization of biodiesel produced from palm oil via base catalyzed transesterification,” Procedia Eng., vol. 53, pp. 7–12, 2013.

M. H. Mat Yasin, R. Mamat, G. Najafi, O. M. Ali, A. F. Yusop, and M. H. Ali, “Potentials of palm oil as new feedstock oil for a global alternative fuel: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 79, no. April 2016, pp. 1034–1049, 2017.

J. F. García-Martín, C. C. Barrios, F. J. Alés-Álvarez, A. Dominguez-Sáez, and P. Alvarez-Mateos, “Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in an oscillatory flow reactor. Performance as a fuel on a TDI diesel engine,” Renew. Energy, vol. 125, pp. 546–556, 2018.

N. Sootchiewcharn, L. Attanatho, and P. Reubroycharoen, Biodiesel Production from Refined Palm Oil using Supercritical Ethyl Acetate in A Microreactor, vol. 79. Elsevier B.V., 2015.

U. K. Nizar, J. Hidayatul, R. Sundari, B. Bahrizal, A. Amran, A. Putra, L. Latisma Dj, and I. Dewata, “The Effect of Titanium Tetrahedral Coordination of Silica-Titania Catalyst on the Physical Properties of Biodiesel,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 335, no. 1, 2018.

U. K. Nizar, J. Efendi, L. Yuliati, D. Gustiono, and H. Nur, “A new way to control the coordination of titanium (IV) in the sol-gel synthesis of broom fibers-like mesoporous alkyl silica-titania catalyst through addition of water,” Chem. Eng. J., vol. 222, pp. 23–31, 2013.

N. Umar Kalmar, “Synthesis and characterization of silica-titania catalyst with solid-state technique applying SiO 2 and TiO 2 solid precursors based on variation time of calcination in biodiesel production Synthesis and characterization of silica-titania catalyst with so,” 2019.

Z. Zurryati, R. Sundari, B. Bahrizal, A. Putra, L. DJ, E. Nasra, D. Kurniawati, and U. K. Nizar, “The Effect of Silica-Titania Catalyst Loading on the Production of Biodiesel from Palm and Waste Cooking Oil Abstract :,” Int. J. Sci. Res. Eng. Dev., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 96–101, 2019.

U. K. Nizar, Y. Manan, R. Sari, R. Sundari, A. Putra, and L. Dj, “The Correlation of Biodiesel Physical Properties and Titanium Tetrahedral Coordination in Silica-Titania Prepared by Different Moles Ratio of Titania Precursors,” 2013.

M. F. Elkady, A. Zaatout, and O. Balbaa, “Production of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil via KM Micromixer,” vol. 2015, 2015.

N. S. Lani, N. Ngadi, and M. R. Taib, “Parametric Study on the Transesterification Reaction by Using CaO / Silica Catalyst,” vol. 56, pp. 601–606, 2017.

Y. M. Zein, A. K. Anal, D. Prasetyoko, and I. Qoniah, “Biodiesel Production from Waste Palm Oil Catalyzed by Hierarchical ZSM-5 Supported Calcium Oxide,” vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 98–104, 2016.

A. Bilgin, M. Gulum, and I. Andri, “Effects of various transesterification some fuel properties of hazelnut oil methyl ester of hazelnut oil methyl ester,” Energy Procedia, vol. 147, pp. 54–62, 2018.

A. Bilgin, M. Gülüm, İ. Koyuncuoglu, E. Nac, and A. Cakmak, “Determination of transesterification reaction parameters giving the lowest viscosity waste cooking oil biodiesel,” vol. 195, pp. 2492–2500, 2015.

P. M. Ejikeme, I. D. Anyaogu, C. L. Ejikeme, N. P. Nwafor, C. A. C. Egbuonu, K. Ukogu, J. A. Ibemesi, I. Chemistry, and F. Polytechnic, “Catalysus in Biodiesel Production by Transesterification Processes-An Insight,” vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1120–1132, 2010.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Tamara Putri Raffeza, Ananda Putra, Latisma Dj, Budhi Oktavia, Desy Kurniawati, Sri Benti Etika, Rita Sundari, Umar Kalmar Nizar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.