Challenges and Coping Mechanisms of improving Instructional Materials : The cases of Secondary Schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Messeret Assefa


This study attempts to find out the challenges and coping mechanisms of improving instructional materials in the secondary schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  The study investigated into the problem through a descriptive research design. The study also employed quantitative and qualitative approach.  For this purpose, out of ten sub cities six sub cities were selected randomly. The sample of this study comprised of six principals, selected by purposive sampling method, 125 secondary schools teachers and 300 students selected by using simple random sampling method.  A closed ended and an open ended questionnaire was adopted to collect data from the teacher and students.  There were six teachers and students FGDs from six sample secondary schools each group comprised five members. The time taken was one hour for each FGD at a different time span. For validity and reliability test the questionnaire was piloted in non sample school before formally administering to the sample respondents.  The obtained data were analyzed systematically using descriptive statistics and presented with the help of mean and SD statistics. Literature review also focuses on the meaning, use and challenges of instructional materials in regards to secondary schools. The study was carried out in between September up to December, 2018. The study revealed that the teacher have less knowledge of teaching aids and its functions. However they face challenges such as lack of time for making teaching aids for each lesson, lack of training on using  teaching aids, lack of knowledge on relating teaching aids to the lesson in the teaching learning process. The study concluded that the management participation on teaching aids production and utilization in their respective secondary schools found to be one of the important things. Thus, the study recommends enhancing more emphasis by providing training, awareness, and value on using teaching aids effectively among secondary school teachers.


Teaching Aids, secondary school teachers, Secondary school students, Teaching learning process, challenges faced by secondary school teachers

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