Genomic Technologies in Improving the Efficiency of Animal Health and Husbandry

Ward M. Ashraf, Elhafi A. Giuma, Ayad M. Magdy, Aswehli A. Abdelatefm, Alkurdi M. Abdulraouf, Elgusbi A. Ghada, Hdud M. Ismail, Jurewicz-Ward Katarzyna

Abstract


One of the reasons for this lag in the practical application of the accumulated technologies seems to be the lack of a concept of successive stages of their application in order to increase efficiency and reduce the time for traditional selection work. The first stage of such a technological chain should be a set of methods that allows selecting and selecting animals with an increased likelihood of the desired manifestation of the characteristics of productivity and adaptive potential in their offspring. In order to forecast productivity at the present time, particularly in dairy cattle breeding, "genomic selection" methods are used when, based on the genomic scanning by mononucleotide substitutions (SNP), groups of polylocus genotypes are combined, combining bulls with high milk productivity of their daughters. Genetic engineering is the name of a group of techniques used to identify, replicate, modify and transfer the genetic material of cells, tissues or complete organisms.

 

Important applications of genetic engineering in animal breeding are: 1) Marker-assisted selection (MAS). The objective of this technology is to increase disease resistance, productivity and product quality in economically important animals by adding information of DNA markers to phenotypes and genealogies for selection decisions. 2) Transgenesis, the direct transfer of specific genes/alleles between individuals, species, or even Kingdoms, in order to change their phenotypic expression in the recipients. Compared to the 'traditional' improvement techniques based on phenotypic information only, these gene-by-gene techniques allow theoretically a more complete management of animal genomes for animal breeding. In spite of high expectations and new technical developments, its actual efficiency is not always high, as they require a thorough knowledge of functional genomics, and pose additional technical, economical and ethical problems. The possible role for cloning adult animals in breeding is also discussed.


Keywords


Biomarkers, Quantitative Trait Genes (QTL), Health, Genomic Selection, Landscape Genomics.

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References


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