Mapping the High Risk Populations Against Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Padang West Sumatra Indonesia

Elsa Yuniarti, D Hermon, I Dewata, E Barlian, U Iswamdi

Abstract


Rapid outbreaks of coronavirus in 2019 (COVID-19), arising from acute coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) acute respiratory syndrome infections, have recently become a public health emergency. As one of the cities affected by COVID-19. The city of Padang found the highest case of COVID-19 in the province of West Sumatra and had a high risk of COVID-19 infection with a high rate of elderly population and comobidity diseases, namely diabetes, hypertension and tuberculosis. The purpose of this study is to mapping the distribution of high-risk populations to COVID-19 events in Padang City. This type of research is quantitative descriptive. Systematic data searches conducted for vulnerable groups to COVID-19 were obtained from the Padang City health profile database in 2019 and https://dinkes.padang.go.id/ to update the latest case of COVID-19. The research analysis unit was an administrative region according to the sub-district. The distribution of comorbidity was carried out using GIS analysis techniques using Arc-GIS 10.5 software. Padang City was recorded as the most widespread cluster of positive cases of COVID-19 in West Sumatra Province with a total of 99 confirmed positive cases, Padang Barat District with a total of 28 cases. The high risk population distribution data towards COVID-19 is the highest elderly in Kuranji District with a total of 9722, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and tuberculosis highest in Koto Tangah District, with 11329, 4441 and 2583 cases. Conclusion The highest COVID-19 case in Padang city is not in the sub-district that has a high-risk population infected with COVID-19, but the sub-district must be monitored for those with high-risk population. The elderly population and comorbidities, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis are risk factors for COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 is a new disease that has become a pandemic. This disease must be wary of because of relatively rapid transmission, has a mortality rate that cannot be ignored.

Keywords


COVID-19, high risk, Padang City, SIG

Full Text:

PDF

References


Del Rio C., Malani P.N. 2019 novel coronavirus-important information for clinicians. JAMA. 2020. [Abstract] [Google Scholar]

WHO. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 60. 20 March 2020, https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200320-sitrep-60-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=8894045a_2

WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefingoncovid-19---11-march-2020

Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020; published online March 20. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30084-4.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. New Engl J Med. 2020; published online February 28. DOI: 10.1056/ NEJMoa2002032.

Yunus, N. R., & Rezki, A. (2020). Kebijakan Pemberlakuan LockDown Sebagai Antisipasi Penyebaran Corona Virus Covid-19. SALAM: Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Syar-i, 7(3).

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395: 497-506

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Jama 2020.

Tim Komunikasi Publik GT Nasional. 2020. Pasien Sembuh COVID-19 Menjadi 1.954, Sebanyak 18 Provinsi Tak Laporkan Kasus Baru. https://covid19.go.id/p/berita/pasien-sembuh-covid-19-menjadi-1954-sebanyak-18-provinsi-tak-laporkan-kasus-baru

Dinas Kesehatan Kota Padang. (2020). Profil Kesehatan Kota Padang. Padang: https://dinkes.padang.go.id/profil-kesehatan-tahun-2019

Gavinov, I. T., & Huda, S. (2019). Penerapan Sistem Informasi Geografis Faktor Risiko Penyakit Leptospirosis. Wawasan Kesehatan: Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Kesehatan, 5(1).

Antomi, Y., Hermon, D., Erianjoni, E., Lanin, D., Dewata, I., & Razak, A. (2018). Model Habitat Quality in the Future in Padang City. International Journal of GEOMATE, 15(52), 99-107.

Delina, P. J. E., Dayawansa, N. D. K., & De Silva, R. P. (2019). Detection and Mapping of Spatial Distribution of Floating Algae in Batticaloa Lagoon, Sri Lanka Using Remote Sensing & GIS.IJPSAT. 17(2): 26 – 36.

Ghanavati, E. A. Y. E. (2016). Landslide hazard zonation by using AHP (analytical hierarchy process) model in GIS (geographic information system) environment (case study: Kordan watershed). IJPSAT. 2(1): 24 – 39

Rahim, A., & Yudhastuti, R. (2015). Pemetaan dan Analisis Faktor Risiko Lingkungan Kejadian Leptospiros Berbasis Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG) di Kabupaten Sampang. Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan, 8(1), 48-56

Onasis, A., Barlian, E., & Razak, A. (2019, August). Studies breeding places of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in dengue endemic Padang area. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 314, No. 1, p. 012022). IOP Publishing.

Umar, I. (2018). Prioritas Pengembangan Objek Wisata di Kota Padang, Provinsi Sumatera Barat. Tataloka, 20(4), 431-439.

Tim Komunikasi Publik GT Nasional. 2020. Kasus Positif COVID-19 Sentuh Angka 10.118, Pasien Sembuh Naik 1.522 Orang. https://covid19.go.id/p/berita/kasus-positif-covid-19-sentuh-angka-10118-pasien-sembuh-naik-1522-orang

Gugus Tugas Percepatan Penanganan COVID-19 Sumatera Barat. 2020. https://corona.sumbarprov.go.id/

Cai H. Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with COVID-19. Lancet Respir Med. 2020; published online March 11. DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30117-X

Fang L, Karakiulakis G, Roth M. Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection? Lancet Respir Med. 2020; published online March 11. DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30116-8.

Diaz JH. Hypothesis: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may increase the risk of severe COVID-19. J Travel Med. 2020; published online March 18. DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taaa041

European Society of Cardiology. Position Statement of the ESC Council on Hypertension on ACEInhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers [Internet]. 2020 [updated 2020 March 13; cited 2020 March 22].Availablefrom:https://www.escardio.org/Councils/Council-on-Hypertension(CHT)/News/positionstatement-of-the-esc-council-on-hypertension-on-ace-inhibitorsand-ang.

Yang J, Zheng Y, Gou X, Pu K, Chen Z, Guo Q, et al. Prevalence of comorbidities in the novel Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis. 2020; published online March 12. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017.

Leung, C. (2020). Risk factors for predicting mortality in elderly patients with COVID-19: a review of clinical data in China. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 111255.

Prevention CfDCa. Interim US Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health Management of Persons with Potential Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Exposures: GeographicRisk and Contacts of Laboratory-confirmed Cases [Internet]. 2020 [updated 2020 March 7; cited 2020 March 20]. Availablefrom: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/riskassessment.html.

van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med. 2020; published online March 17. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973.

Elsa Yuniarti. 2020. Pengaruh Lingkungan terhadap Penyebaran COVID-19 di Pasar Raya Padang, Pusat Kajian Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Negeri Padang. https://posmetropadang.co.id/pengaruh-lingkungan-terhadap-penyebaran-covid-19-di-pasar-raya-padang-dr-elsa-yuniarti-m-biomed-aifo-k-pusat-kajian-lingkungan-hidup-universitas-negeri-padang/

Yola Sastra. 2020. Empat Episentrum Covid-19 di Sumbar, Kluster Pasar Raya Padang Paling Berat. https://bebas.kompas.id/baca/nusantara/2020/04/29/empat-episentrum-covid-19-di-sumbar-klaster-pasar-raya-padang-paling-berat/

Jeka Kampai. 2020. Ingat! Aturan PSBB Sumatera Barat Berlaku Mulai 22 April 2020. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-4984475/ingat-aturan-psbb-sumatera-barat-berlaku-mulai-22-april-2020

Direktorat Jenderal Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Penyakit. Pedoman Kesiapsiagaan Menghadapi Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Maret 2020. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2020.

World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 March 15]. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus2019/advice-for-public.

World Health Organization. Global surveillance for COVID-19 disease caused by human infection with the 2019 novel coronavirus. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.

World Health Organization. Infection prevention and control during health care when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.

World Health Organization. Critical preparedness, readiness and response actions for COVID-19. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.

World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.

Riedel S, Morse S, Mietzner T, Miller S. Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology. 28th ed. New York: McGrawHill Education/Medical; 2019. p.617-22.

Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect. 2020;104(3):246-51.

Feldman C, Anderson R. Cigarette smoking and mechanisms of susceptibility to infections of the respiratory tract and other organ systems. J Infect. 2013;67(3):169-84.

Ibarra-Coronado EG, Pantaleon-Martinez AM, VelazquezMoctezuma J, Prospero-Garcia O, Mendez-Diaz M, Perez-Tapia M, et al. The Bidirectional Relationship between Sleep and Immunity against Infections. J Immunol Res. 2015;2015:678164.

Martineau AR, Jolliffe DA, Hooper RL, Greenberg L, Aloia JF, Bergman P, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ. 2017;356:i6583.

Hao Q, Dong BR, Wu T. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015(2):Cd006895.

Roth DE, Richard SA, Black RE. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of acute lower respiratory infection in children in developing countries: meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized trials. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39(3):795-808.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Elsa Yuniarti

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.