Biosorption Efficacy of Biosorbents Prepared from Cocoa Leaves Used for Removal of Lead Polluted Wastewater at Birnin Gwari War Front, Kaduna State

Zainab Hussaina Ibrahim, MD Faruruwa, A. Elebo

Abstract


The potential of Acid Treated (ATC) and Untreated Cocoa Leaves (UTC) biosorbents used for removal of Pb2+ from wastewater at warfront was studied using batch adsorption technique. Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used to ascertain the residual Pb2+ concentration after the adsorption process. The optimum operational experimental conditions: adsorbent dose, pH, initial Pb2+ concentration and contact time were obtained. It was found that the percentage sorption of Pb2+ increased with; higher adsorbent doses (0.8-1 g/25cm3), increase in pH levels (7 - 9), increased Pb2+ concentration (between 150 – 200 mg/L) and increased contact time (150 - 180 minutes). The result showed that cocoa leaves have the potential to remove Pb2+ polluted wastewater at about 99.8% removal. The biosorbents were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). It showed the presence of O-H, O-CO-, N-N=O and    -C-H are responsible for the adsorption of Pb2+ onto the biosorbents. The adsorption of Pb2+ onto ATC and UTC from wastewater at war front best fitted into Pseudo-Second Order Kinetic Model validated by the coefficient of regression R² values close to infinity. The equilibrium sorption data were fitted best into Freundlich isotherms with R2 value for ATC is 0.5754 and UTC for 0.6441. The maximum monolayer coverage (Qo) from Langmuir isotherm model was determined to be 117.65 mg/g for ATC and 53.35mg/g for UTC. The Freundlich Isotherm model showed the sorption intensity (n) of 0.348 for ATC and 0.1557 for UTC indicated favorable adsorption. 

Keywords


Keywords: Cocoa Leaves, Lead, Biosorption, wastewater, Kinetics, Isotherms

Full Text:

PDF

References


REFERENCES

Ajaelu CA and Dawodu MO., (2013) Sequestration of Cadmium Ions onto Mango (Mangifera Indica) Seed Biomass: Kinetics And Equilibrium Studies. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 5(9):1-9

Ajmal M., Kham A.H., Ahmad. A. (1998). Use of sawdust in the removal of copper (II) from industrial wastes. Water Res. J. 32 (10) 3085 – 3091.

Alfarra RS, Ali NE, Yusoff MM, (2014), Removal of Heavy Metals by Natural Adsorbent: Review. International Journal of Biosciences. 4 (7), p. 130-139. ISSN: 2220-6655, retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/4.7.130-139. Accessed on 26/04/2017

Ashraf R. and Ali T.A., (2007), Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial community and mung beans seed germination. Pakistan Journals of Botany, 39 (2), 629-636.

Bin, Y.Z., Shukla, A., Shyam, S.S., Doris, K.L., (2001). Removal of heavy metal from solution by saw dust in Adsorption–removal of lead and comparison of its adsorption with copper. J. Hazard. Mater. 84 (1) 83 – 94.

Bishnoi NR, Bajaj M, Sharma N, Gupta A (2004). Adsorption of Cr(VI) on Activated Rice Husk Carbon and Activated Alumina. Biores. Technol. 91. 305 – 307.

Dada A. O., Latona D. F., Ojediran O. J., and Nath O. O. (2015). Adsorption of Cu (II) onto Bamboo Supported Manganese (BS-Mn) Nanocomposite: Effect of Operational Parameters, Kinetic, Isotherms, and Thermodynamic Studies. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. Vol. 20 (2)409 –422 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v20i2.24

Dada, A.O, Olalekan, A.P, Olatunya, A.M., DADA, O (2016), Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich Isotherms Studies of Equilibrium Sorption of Zn2+ Unto Phosphoric Acid Modified Rice Husk. Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC) ISSN: 2278-5736. 3 (1), PP 38-45

Ege A., and Doner G., (2013). A new biosorbent for the removal of Cu (II) from aqueous solution; red marine alga, Ceramium rubrum. E3S Web of Conferences 1, 25009 DOI:10.1051/e3sconf/20130125009

El-Chaghaby, G. A. F., Abdel-Ghani, N. T., and Hefny, M. (2009). Removal of lead from aqueous solution using low cost abundantly available adsorbents. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4 (1): 67-73.

Elhadi, M. I., Abdelrahim, A. A. (2013). Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution and Human Plasma by Garlic Cloves. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research 3 (2) 77- 81.

Febriantoa J, Kosasiha A. N., Sunarso J, Jua Y, Indraswati N. and Ismadji S., (2009). Equilibrium and kinetic studies in adsorption of heavy metals using biosorbent: A summary of recent studies. Journal of Hazardous Materials ScienceDirect, 162, 616–645. Retrieved from www.elsevier.com/locate/jhazmat ,retrieved on 15/07/2017.

Fomina M and Gadd G. M., (2014), Biosorption, Current Perspectives on Concept, Definition and Application. Bioresource Technology. 160, pg 3-14. Retrieved from www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi/S0960852413019421

Gardea, T.J.L., Tiemann, K.J., Armendariz, V., Besseorberto, L., Chianelli, R.R., Rios, J., Parson, J.G., and Gamez, G. (2000). Characterization of Cr (VI) binding and reduction to Cr (III) by agricultural by-product of Avena mondia (oat) biomass. Journal of Hazarduous material, 80:175-188.

Goldberg, S. (2005). Equations and Models Describing Adsorption Processes in Soils. In Chemical Processes in Soils (No. 8, pp.489-517). Madison,WI: Soil Science Society of America.

Govindarajan, C.R., Tromathi, T., and Sudha, P.N. (2011). Studies on adsorption of cadmium unto nanochitosan carboxymethyl cellulose blend. Archives of applied science Research 3(5): 572 – 580.

Gupta VK and Ali I. (2000) Utilization of bagasse fly ash (a sugar industry waste) for the removal of copper and zinc from wastewater. Sep. Puri.Technol 18, 131-140.

Igwe, J.C., and Abia, A.A. (2007). Equilibrium sorption isotherm studies of Cd (II), Pb (II) and Zn (II) ions detoxification from waste water using unmodified and edta-modified maize husk. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology,10(.4): 536-548.

José, A., Fernández, L., José, M., Angosto,, and María, D. Avilés, (2014), Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Medium with Opuntia Biomass.The scientific World Journal (2); 1-8.

Karaca, H., Tay, T., and Kivanç, M., (2010). Equations and Models Describing Adsorption Processes in soils. In Chemical Processes in Soils Water Practice & Technology 5 (1):1-10.

Leyva, R.R., Rangel, M.J.R., Mendoza, B.J., Fuentes, R.L., and Guerrero, C.R.M. (1997). Adsorption of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution on to activated carbon. Water Science and Technology, 35 (7): 205-211.

Mahamadi C. and Chapeyama R., (2011). Divalent metal ion removal from aqueous solution by acid-treated and garlic-treated Canna indica roots. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 15 (1), pp 97-103.

Mesfin, A, (2009), Removal of copper using Micro size coconut Husk powder, Equilibrium and Kinetic studies, J. Nat. Env and Poll. Tech, 8(2):389 - 394.

Mohammad T, Moheb A., Sadrzadeh M. and Razmi A. (2005). Modeling of metal ion removal in waste water by electrodialysis. Separation and Purification Technology, 41(1): 73-82.

Rafeah, W., Zainab, N., Veronica, U. (2009). Removal of mercury, lead and copper from aqueous solution by activated carbon of palm oil empty fruit Bunch. World Appl. Sci. J. 5: 84 – 91

Srivastava S. and Goyal P. (2010), Novel Biomaterials: Decontamination of Toxic Metals from Wastewater, Springer-Verlag Berlin.

Tichaona N., and Olindah H., (2013) Equilibrium Isotherm Analysis of The Biosorption of Zn2+ Ions by Acid Treated Zea Mays Leaf Powder. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, 6 (1) pp 128-139. ISSN: 2231-1963

Tijani J. O., Musah M and Blessing I., (2011). Sorption of Lead (II) and Copper (II) ions from Aqueous Solution by Acid Modified and Unmodified Gmelina Arborea (Verbenaceae) Leaves. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (5):734-740 (ISSN: 2141-7016).

Tilaki, R.A., Mahvi, A.H., Shariat, M., and Nasseri, S. (2004). Study of Cadmium Removal from Environmental Water by Biofilm Covered Granular Activated Carbon. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 33(4):43-52.

Wang, L., Chen, Z., Yang, J., and Ma, F. (2013). Pb (II) Biosorption by Compound Bioflocculant: Performance and Mechanism. Desalination and Water Treatment, 1-9.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Zainab Hussaina Ibrahim

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.