Advanced Strategies Against COVID‑19 Review

Maged Naser, Mohamed MN, Lamia H. Shehata


The arising SARS-CoV-2 viral disease (COVID-19) has caused a worldwide health alert because of its high rate of infection and mortality in people with chronic cardiovascular comorbidities, as well as creating complex clinical conditions. This has constrained mainstream researchers to investigate various techniques that permit combating this viral disease just as treating hazardous fundamental impact of the infection on the individual. In this work, we have evaluated the latest logical proof to give an extensive display in regards to the biotechnological techniques that have been proposed to combat this new viral disease. We have focused in our study on vaccine production, nanotechnology applications, repurposing of known drugs for unrelated pathologies, and the search for bioactive molecules acquired from natural products. The objectives incorporate safely use as possible prophylactic or therapeutic treatment, in view of in silico and in vivo studies, including clinical trials around the world for the right and ideal diagnosis of the infection. This study intends to feature the advancement of groundbreaking thoughts that can diminish the time line for research yield and improve research quality while simultaneously, remembering the efficacy and safety of these potential biotechnological strategies.


(COVID-19, Antivirals, Drugs and COVID-19, Vaccines against COVID-19, Nanotechnology against COVID19)

Full Text:



- Shi, Yu, et al. "An overview of COVID-19." Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B (2020): 1.‏

- Zhu, Na, et al. "A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019." New England journal of medicine (2020).‏

- Mahase, Elisabeth. "Coronavirus: covid-19 has killed more people than SARS and MERS combined, despite lower case fatality rate." (2020).‏

- Chien, Lung-Chang, and Lung-Wen Chen. "Meteorological impacts on the incidence of COVID-19 in the US." Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 34.10 (2020): 1675-1680.‏

- Connors, Jean M., and Jerrold H. Levy. "COVID-19 and its implications for thrombosis and anticoagulation." Blood, The Journal of the American Society of Hematology 135.23 (2020): 2033-2040.‏

- Gupta, Aakriti, et al. "Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19." Nature medicine 26.7 (2020): 1017-1032.‏

- Liu, Bingwen, et al. "Can we use interleukin-6 (IL-6) blockade for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced cytokine release syndrome (CRS)?" Journal of autoimmunity (2020): 102452.‏

- Marietta, Marco, et al. "COVID-19 and haemostasis: a position paper from Italian Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (SISET)." Blood Transfusion 18.3 (2020): 167.‏

- Pelaia, Corrado, et al. "Lung under attack by COVID-19-induced cytokine storm: pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic implications." Therapeutic advances in respiratory disease 14 (2020): 1753466620933508.‏

- Saha, Abinit, et al. "Tocilizumab: a therapeutic option for the treatment of cytokine storm syndrome in COVID-19." Archives of medical research 51.6 (2020): 595-597.‏

- Lan, Jun, et al. "Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain bound to the ACE2 receptor." Nature 581.7807 (2020): 215-220.‏

- Lobo-Galo, Naún, et al. "FDA-approved thiol-reacting drugs that potentially bind into the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, essential for viral replication." Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics (2020): 1-9.‏

- Tu, Yung-Fang, et al. "A review of SARS-CoV-2 and the ongoing clinical trials." International journal of molecular sciences 21.7 (2020): 2657.‏

- Tu, Yung-Fang, et al. "A review of SARS-CoV-2 and the ongoing clinical trials." International journal of molecular sciences 21.7 (2020): 2657.‏

- Wang, Yanqun, et al. "Kinetics of viral load and antibody response in relation to COVID-19 severity." The Journal of clinical investigation 130.10 (2020).‏

- Dai, Wenhao, et al. "Structure-based design of antiviral drug candidates targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease." Science368.6497 (2020): 1331-1335.‏

- Jin, Yuefei, et al. "Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of COVID-19." Viruses 12.4 (2020): 372.‏

- Hillen, Hauke S., et al. "Structure of replicating SARS-CoV-2 polymerase." Nature 584.7819 (2020): 154-156.‏

- Agostini, Maria L., et al. "Coronavirus susceptibility to the antiviral remdesivir (GS-5734) is mediated by the viral polymerase and the proofreading exoribonuclease." MBio 9.2 (2018).‏

- Angelini, Megan M., et al. "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural proteins 3, 4, and 6 induce double-membrane vesicles." MBio 4.4 (2013).‏

- Liu, Kui, et al. "Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province." Chin

- Wang, Manli, et al. "Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro." Cell research 30.3 (2020): 269-271.‏

- Ziegler, Carly GK, et al. "SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 is an interferon-stimulated gene in human airway epithelial cells and is detected in specific cell subsets across tissues." Cell 181.5 (2020): 1016-1035.‏

- Gupta, Suchi, et al. "Mesenchymal stem cell derived exosomes: a nano platform for therapeutics and drug delivery in combating COVID-19." Stem cell reviews and reports (2020): 1-11.‏

- Sun, Xinjuan, et al. "Cytokine storm intervention in the early stages of COVID-19 pneumonia." Cytokine & growth factor reviews 53 (2020): 38-42.‏

- Habib, Heba. "Has Sweden’s controversial covid-19 strategy been successful?." bmj 369 (2020).‏

- Corey, Lawrence, et al. "A strategic approach to COVID-19 vaccine R&D." Science 368.6494 (2020): 948-950.‏

- Sullivan, Patrick Sean, et al. "Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies in diverse samples: protocol to validate the sufficiency of provider-observed, home-collected blood, saliva, and oropharyngeal samples." JMIR public health and surveillance 6.2 (2020): e19054.‏

- Shereen, Muhammad Adnan, et al. "COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses." Journal of advanced research 24 (2020): 91-98.‏

- Zhang, Naru, et al. "Current development of COVID-19 diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics." Microbes and infection22.6-7 (2020): 231-235.‏

- Wu, Suh‐Chin. "Progress and concept for COVID‐19 vaccine development." Biotechnology journal (2020).‏

- Robson, Barry. "Computers and viral diseases. Preliminary bioinformatics studies on the design of a synthetic vaccine and a preventative peptidomimetic antagonist against the SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV, COVID-19) coronavirus." Computers in biology and medicine 119 (2020): 103670.‏

- Yuan, Kehu, et al. "Suppression of SARS-CoV entry by peptides corresponding to heptad regions on spike glycoprotein." Biochemical and biophysical research communications 319.3 (2004): 746-752.‏

- Mahase, Elisabeth. "Covid-19: What do we know so far about a vaccine?" (2020).‏

- Prompetchara, Eakachai, Chutitorn Ketloy, and Tanapat Palaga. "Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic." Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 38.1 (2020): 1-9.‏

- Cohen, Jon. "Vaccine designers take first shots at COVID-19." (2020): 14-16.‏

- Liu, Cynthia, et al. "Research and development on therapeutic agents and vaccines for COVID-19 and related human coronavirus diseases." (2020): 315-331.‏

- Hegarty, Paul K., et al. "BCG vaccination may be protective against Covid-19." preprint (2020).‏

- Miller, Aaron, et al. "Correlation between universal BCG vaccination policy and reduced mortality for COVID-19." MedRxiv (2020).‏

- Raw, Isaias. "Developing Countries Can Innovate and Produce Vaccines: The Case of Butantan in Brazil." Vaccines-the History and Future. IntechOpen, 2019.‏

- Folegatti, Pedro M., et al. "Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial." The Lancet 396.10249 (2020): 467-478.‏

- Shin, Matthew D., et al. "COVID-19 vaccine development and a potential nanomaterial path forward." Nature nanotechnology15.8 (2020): 646-655.‏

- Zhou, Yadi, et al. "Artificial intelligence in COVID-19 drug repurposing." The Lancet Digital Health (2020).‏

- Bloch, Evan M., et al. "Deployment of convalescent plasma for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19." The Journal of clinical investigation 130.6 (2020): 2757-2765.‏

- Casadevall, Arturo, and Liise-anne Pirofski. "The convalescent sera option for containing COVID-19." The Journal of clinical investigation 130.4 (2020): 1545-1548.‏


- Mullard, Asher. "COVID-19 vaccines buoy hope." Nat Rev Drug Discov. https://doi. org/10.1038/d4157 (2020): 3-020.‏

- Weiss, Carsten, et al. "Toward nanotechnology-enabled approaches against the COVID-19 pandemic." ACS nano 14.6 (2020): 6383-6406.‏

- Sportelli, Maria Chiara, et al. "Can nanotechnology and materials science help the fight against SARS-CoV-2?" Nanomaterials10.4 (2020): 802.‏

- Erasmus, Jesse H., et al. "An Alphavirus-derived replicon RNA vaccine induces SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody and T cell responses in mice and nonhuman primates." Science translational medicine 12.555 (2020).‏

- Staroverov, S. A., et al. "Immunostimulatory effect of gold nanoparticles conjugated with transmissible gastroenteritis virus." Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine 151.4 (2011): 436.‏

- Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud, et al. "Nanomaterials and nanotechnology-associated innovations against viral infections with a focus on coronaviruses." Nanomaterials 10.6 (2020): 1072.‏

- Chauhan, Gaurav, et al. "Nanotechnology for COVID-19: therapeutics and vaccine research." ACS nano 14.7 (2020): 7760-7782.‏

- Gupta, Suchi, et al. "Mesenchymal stem cell derived exosomes: a nano platform for therapeutics and drug delivery in combating COVID-19." Stem cell reviews and reports (2020): 1-11.‏

- Joyner, Michael J., et al. "Effect of convalescent plasma on mortality among hospitalized patients with COVID-19: initial three-month experience." MedRxiv (2020).‏

- Huo, Jiangdong, et al. "Neutralizing nanobodies bind SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD and block interaction with ACE2." Nature structural & molecular biology 27.9 (2020): 846-854.‏

- Schoof, Michael, et al. "An ultra-high affinity synthetic nanobody blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection by locking Spike into an inactive conformation." bioRxiv (2020).‏

- Zhang, Qiangzhe, et al. "Cellular nanosponges inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infectivity." Nano letters 20.7 (2020): 5570-5574.‏

- Van Doremalen, Neeltje, et al. "Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1." New England journal of medicine 382.16 (2020): 1564-1567.‏

- Leung, Wallace Woon-Fong, and Yuen Ting Chau. "Experiments on filtering nano-aerosols from vehicular and atmospheric pollutants under dominant diffusion using nanofiber filter." Separation and Purification Technology 213 (2019): 186-198.‏

- Leung, Wallace Woon-Fong, and Qiangqiang Sun. "Charged PVDF multilayer nanofiber filter in filtering simulated airborne novel coronavirus (COVID-19) using ambient nano-aerosols." Separation and purification technology 245 (2020): 116887.‏

- Palmieri, V., and M. J. N. T. Papi. "Can graphene take part in the fight against COVID-19?" Nano Today 33 (2020): 100883.‏

- Ceylan, Zafer, Raciye Meral, and Turgay Cetinkaya. "Relevance of SARS-CoV-2 in food safety and food hygiene: potential preventive measures, suggestions and nanotechnological approaches." VirusDisease 31.2 (2020): 154-160.‏

- Rosa, Sandro G. Viveiros, and Wilson C. Santos. "Clinical trials on drug repositioning for COVID-19 treatment." Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 44 (2020): e40.‏

- Riva, Laura, et al. "A large-scale drug repositioning survey for SARS-CoV-2 antivirals." BioRxiv (2020).‏

- Sheahan, Timothy P., et al. "An orally bioavailable broad-spectrum antiviral inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial cell cultures and multiple coronaviruses in mice." Science translational medicine 12.541 (2020).‏

- Weston, Stuart, et al. "FDA approved drugs with broad anti-coronaviral activity inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro." BioRxiv (2020).‏

- DeVito, Nicholas J., Seb Bacon, and Ben Goldacre. "Compliance with legal requirement to report clinical trial results on ClinicalTrials. gov: a cohort study." The Lancet 395.10221 (2020): 361-369.‏

- Cai, Qingxian, et al. "Experimental treatment with favipiravir for COVID-19: an open-label control study." Engineering 6.10 (2020): 1192-1198.‏

- Hung, Ivan Fan-Ngai, et al. "Triple combination of interferon beta-1b, lopinavir–ritonavir, and ribavirin in the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial." The Lancet 395.10238 (2020): 1695-1704.‏

- Doi, Yohei, et al. "A prospective, randomized, open-label trial of early versus late favipiravir therapy in hospitalized patients with COVID-19." Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 64.12 (2020).‏

- de Salud Pública, Subsecretaría. "Orientaciones para Atención Odontológica en Fase IV COVID-19." Santiago de Chile, Subsecretaría de Salud Pública, Ministerio de Salud, Gobierno de Chile (2020).‏

- Gordon, David E., et al. "A SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map reveals targets for drug repurposing." Nature 583.7816 (2020): 459-468.‏

- Alia, Erisa, and Jane M. Grant-Kels. "Does hydroxychloroquine combat COVID-19? A timeline of evidence." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 83.1 (2020): e33-e34.‏

- Gupta, Anunay, and Amit Malviya. "Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19: time to close the chapter." Postgraduate Medical Journal (2020).‏

- Hoffmann, Markus, et al. "Chloroquine does not inhibit infection of human lung cells with SARS-CoV-2." Nature 585.7826 (2020): 588-590.‏

- Ahmed, Mohamed. "Natural compounds from Djiboutian medicinal plants as inhibitors of COVID-19 by in silico investigations." (2020).‏

- Shannon, Ashleigh, et al. "Remdesivir and SARS-CoV-2: Structural requirements at both nsp12 RdRp and nsp14 Exonuclease active-sites." Antiviral research 178 (2020): 104793.‏

- Orf, Katharine, et al. "Remdesivir during induction chemotherapy for newly diagnosed pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with concomitant SARS‐CoV‐2 infection." British journal of hematology 190.5 (2020): e274-e276.‏

- WHO Solidarity Trial Consortium. "Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19—interim WHO SOLIDARITY trial results." New England Journal of Medicine 384.6 (2021): 497-511.‏

- Villar, Jesús, et al. "Dexamethasone treatment for the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a multicenter, randomised controlled trial." The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 8.3 (2020): 267-276.‏

- McMichael, Temet M., et al. "COVID-19 in a long-term care facility—King County, Washington, February 27–March 9, 2020." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 69.12 (2020): 339.‏

- Sterne, Jonathan AC, et al. "Association between administration of systemic corticosteroids and mortality among critically ill patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis." Jama 324.13 (2020): 1330-1341.‏

- Hassan, Sherif TS. "Shedding light on the effect of natural anti-herpesvirus alkaloids on SARS-CoV-2: a treatment option for COVID-19." (2020): 476.‏

- Ang, Lin, et al. "Herbal medicine and pattern identification for treating COVID-19: a rapid review of guidelines." Integrative medicine research 9.2 (2020): 100407.‏

- Newman, David J., and Gordon M. Cragg. "Natural products as sources of new drugs from 1981 to 2014." Journal of natural products 79.3 (2016): 629-661.‏

- Ang, Lin, et al. "Herbal medicine and pattern identification for treating COVID-19: a rapid review of guidelines." Integrative medicine research 9.2 (2020): 100407.‏

- Bailly, Christian, and Gérard Vergoten. "Glycyrrhizin: An alternative drug for the treatment of COVID-19 infection and the associated respiratory syndrome?" Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2020): 107618.‏

- Lobo-Galo, Naun, et al. "Recent biotechnological advances as potential intervention strategies against COVID-19." 3 Biotech11.2 (2021): 1-21.‏

- Luo, Erdan, et al. "Treatment efficacy analysis of traditional Chinese medicine for novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19): an empirical study from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China." Chinese medicine 15 (2020): 1-13.‏

- Zhong, Linda Li Dan, et al. "Potential targets for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a review of Qing-Fei-Pai-du-tang and its major herbs." The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 48.05 (2020): 1051-1071.‏

- Pan, Xiaoqi, et al. "Potential drugs for the treatment of the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) in China." Virus research (2020): 198057.‏

- Yang, Ruocong, et al. "Chemical composition and pharmacological mechanism of Qingfei Paidu Decoction and Ma Xing Shi Gan Decoction against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): in silico and experimental study." Pharmacological research 157 (2020): 104820.‏

- Ang, Lin, et al. "Herbal medicine and pattern identification for treating COVID-19: a rapid review of guidelines." Integrative medicine research 9.2 (2020): 100407.‏

- Williamson, Gary, and Asimina Kerimi. "Testing of natural products in clinical trials targeting the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) viral spike protein-angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) interaction." Biochemical pharmacology (2020): 114123.‏

- Berretta, Andresa Aparecida, et al. "Propolis and its potential against SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanisms and COVID-19 disease." Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy (2020): 110622.‏

- Sivaraman, Dhanasekaran, and Puspharaj selvadoss Pradeep. "Revealing anti-viral potential of Bio-active therapeutics targeting SARS-CoV2-polymerase (RdRp) in combating COVID-19: Molecular Investigation on Indian traditional medicines." (2020).‏

- Naik, Biswajit, et al. "High throughput virtual screening reveals SARS-CoV-2 multi-target binding natural compounds to lead instant therapy for COVID-19 treatment." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 160 (2020): 1-17.‏

- Güler, Halil Ibrahim, et al. "Investigation of potential inhibitor properties of ethanolic propolis extracts against ACE-II receptors for COVID-19 treatment by Molecular Docking Study." ScienceOpen Preprints (2020).‏

- Adem, Sevki, et al. "Identification of potent COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors from natural polyphenols: an in-silico strategy unveils a hope against CORONA." (2020).‏

- Hogan, Catherine A., et al. "Comparison of the Accula SARS-CoV-2 test with a laboratory-developed assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in clinical nasopharyngeal specimens." Journal of clinical microbiology 58.8 (2020).‏

- Teoh, T. K., et al. "Outcomes of point-of-care testing for influenza in the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in Ireland." Journal of Hospital Infection 110 (2021): 45-51.‏

- O'Sullivan, Ciara K. "Aptasensors–the future of biosensing?" Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 372.1 (2002): 44-48.‏

- Kumar, Ramesh, et al. "COVID-19 diagnostic approaches: different roads to the same destination." Virusdisease 31.2 (2020): 97-105.‏

- Rabiee, Navid, et al. "Point-of-use rapid detection of sars-cov-2: nanotechnology-enabled solutions for the COVID-19 pandemic." International journal of molecular sciences 21.14 (2020): 5126.‏

- Ahmed, Syed Rahin, Éva Nagy, and Suresh Neethirajan. "Self-assembled star-shaped chiroplasmonic gold nanoparticles for an ultrasensitive chiro-immunosensor for viruses." RSC advances7.65 (2017): 40849-40857.‏

- Layqah, Laila Ali, and Shimaa Eissa. "An electrochemical immunosensor for the corona virus associated with the Middle East respiratory syndrome using an array of gold nanoparticle-modified carbon electrodes." Microchimica Acta 186.4 (2019): 1-10.‏

- Zhao, Rongqing, et al. "Early detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in COVID-19 patients as a serologic marker of infection." Clinical Infectious Diseases (2020).‏

- Bruni, Margherita, et al. "Persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in non-hospitalized COVID-19 convalescent health care workers." Journal of clinical medicine 9.10 (2020): 3188.‏



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Maged Naser, Mohamed MN, Lamia H. Shehata

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.