Soil-To-Fluted Pumpkin Transfer Of Natural Radionuclides In Farm Lands In Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

I. M. Essen, A. A. Essiett, I. E. Essien, K. R. Ekanem, M. C. Bede, I. O. Ehiwe


This work is aimed at evaluating the radionuclides transfer from soil to fluted pumpkin in farm lands in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K were measured in fluted pumpkin and soil samples using high purity Germanium (HPGe) Detector. The mean activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the soils samples ranged from 43. 26 ± 2.53 Bq/Kg to 80.11± 4.26 Bq/kg, 17.45 ± 0.96 Bq/ Kg to 28.71 ± 1.48 Bq/Kg, 23.83 ± 1.27 Bq/ Kg to 53.27 ± 2.84 Bq/Kg and 4.02 ± 0.36 to 43.83 ± 2.35 Bq/Kg respectively. The mean activity concentrations of radionuclides in the fluted pumpkin for  40K, 238U, 232Th and  226Ra ranged from 805.28 ± 42.89 to  1582.93 ± 83.72 Bq/Kg,  below detection limit (BDL) to 86.96 ± 5.63 Bq/Kg,  4.81 ± 0.84 to 46 .23  ±3. 45 Bq/Kg and 7. 17 ± 0.83 to 25.28 ± 1.58 Bq/Kg respectively.  The radionuclides transfer factor (TF) obtained in this work varies from farm to farm and ranged from 10.36 to 87.84 for 40K, BDL to 1. 28 for 238U, 0.13 to 0.95 for 232Th and 0.31 to 0.92 for 226Ra. The TF values for radionuclides obtained for this work were lower than 1 except for 40K.  This suggests that consumption of the fluted pumpkin in these areas might not pose a high radiological hazard to its consumers while for 40K, the human body has an internal mechanism to eliminate its excess in the body.


Radionuclides, Activity concentration,soil, fluted pumpkin, Transfer Factor.

Full Text:



UNSCEAR (2000). Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, united Nations Scientific

Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, United Nations New York .

Ononugbo C,. P, Azikiwe, O and Awiri, G. O (2019). Uptake and Distribution of Natural

Radionuclides in Cassava Crops from Nigerian Government Farms. Journal of Scientific

Research and Reports, 23(5):P 1-15.

Isinkaye M. O. and Emelue (2015). Natural Radioactivity Measurements and Evaluation of

Radiological Hazards in Sediment of Oguata Lake, South East Nigeria. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences 8: 459-469.

Jibiri,N. N, Alausa, S. K and Farai, I. P ( 2009 ). Assessment of External and Internal Doses due to Farming in High Background Radiation areas in old Tin Mining localities in Jos-Plateau, Nigeria. Radioprotection 44 (2) 139 – 151.

Alausa, S. K., Odunaike, K and Adeniji, I. A (2017). Transfer Factor of Radionuclides from

Soil- to palm Oil Produced from Elere Palm tree plantation near Ibadan Oyo, State, Nigeria.

Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, 7(1): 7-12.

Adesiji, N. E and Ademola, J. A (2019). Soil – to – Maize Transfer Factor of Natural

Radionuclides in a tropical Ecosystem of Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, 9(1): 6-10.

Amakom, C. M., Orji, C. E. Eke, B. C, Okoli, U A and Ndudi, C. S (2017). The Influence of

Selected Soil Physicochemical Properties on Radionuclide Transfer in Cassava Crops, International Journal of Plant and Soil Science, 14(1): 1-7.

Saleh I.H, Hafez A. F, ElananyN. H, MotowehH. A, NaimN. A (2006). Radiological Study on Soil Foodstuff and Fertilizers in Alexandria Region, Egypt.Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Science 31(1) 9-7.

Igbeneghu,O. A and Abdu A. B (2014). Multiple Antibiotic- Resistant Bacteria on Fluted Pumpkin. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 32(2): 176-82.

Essien, I. E.,Essiett, A. A., Ani, O. B., Peter, I. G and Udofia, A. E. (2017).Estimation of

Radiological Hazard Indices Due to Radioactivity in Soils in IbionoIbom, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,7( 5): 245-250

Essien, I. E and Akpan, E. N (2016): Evaluation of Radiological Hazards Indices Due to

Radioactivity in Quarry Sites in Itu, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. International Journal of

Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, 4(3): 71-77.

IAEA (1989) Measurement of Radionuclide in Food and the Environment - Guidebook

International Atomic Energy,Technical Report Series No. 295.

IAEA (2010) Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in

Terrestrial and Fresh Water Environments, Technical Report Series No. 472.

FAO/IAEA/IUR (1998) Protocol for Experimental Study on the Uptake of Radionuclides from Soil to Plants by International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna.

Usikalu, M. R., Oderinde, A., Adagunodo, T. A and Akinpelu. A. (2018).Radioactivity Concentration and Dose Assessment of Soil Samples in Cement Factory and Environs in Ogun State, Nigeria.International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) 9:. 1047–1059.

Yehuwdah E. Chad-Umoren and Inimbom J. Umoh (2014) Baseline Radionuclide Distribution Patterns in Soil and Radiation Hazard Indices for Abak, Nigeria. Advances in Physics Theories and

Application, 32.

Bede, M. C., Essiett, A. A.and Inam, E. (2015). An Assessment of Absorbed Dose and Radiation Hazard Index from Natural Radioactivity in Soils from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

International Journal of Science and Technology, 4(3): 80-89

Chad Umoren, Y. E. and Umoh I J (2014). Baseline Radionuuclide Distribution Patterns in Soils and Radiation Hazards Indices for Abak, Nigeria, Advances in Physics Theories and Application. 32: 69-79.

Ocheje, J. A andTyovenda, A. A (2020). Determination of the transfer factor and dose rate of radionuclides in some selected Crops in Kogi State, Nigeria.IOSR journal of Applied Physics, 12(3): 7-12.

Tchokossa, P, Olomo, J. B, Balogun, F A and Adesanmi, C. A (2013). Assessment of

Radioactivity Contents of Food in the Oil and Gas Producing Areas in Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(4): 245-250.

Avwiri, G.O., Ononugbo C.P. &Olasoji, J.M.(2021). Radionuclide Transfer Factors Of Staple Foods And Its Health Risks In Niger Delta Region Of Nigeria. International Journal of

Innovative Environmental Studies Research 9(1):21-32,

Golmakani, S., Moghaddam, M.V. and Hosseini, T. (2008). Factors affecting the transfer of

radionuclides from the environment to plants. Radiation Protection Dosimetry DOI:


Chen, S. B., Zhu, Y. G., Hu, Q. H., (2005): Soil to plant transfer of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th on

uranium mining-impacted soil from southeastern China. J. Environ Radioactivity 82:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 I. M. Essen, A. A. Essiett, I. E. Essien, K. R. Ekanem, M. C. Bede, I. O. Ehiwe

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.