Sensibilité des Populations de Anopheles Gambiae aux Pyréthrinoïdes, Principal Vecteur du Paludisme dans la Région de Natitingou au Nord -Ouest du Bénin

Yadouleton Anges, AGBANRIN Ramziyath, Jean-Robert KLOTOE, AHISSOU Fabrice, HOUNDETON Geraldo, TCHIBOZO Carine, AKOGBETO Martin

Abstract


Vector control programme based on deployment of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) has become the main method for malaria prevention in many endemic countries across Africa. However, the threat of pyrethroid resistance in West Africa is increasingly becoming a serious concern for the future usefulness of ITNs.

Without sufficient evidence, the emergence of insecticide resistance in insect vectors has been partly attributed to the abusive use of insecticides against household and agricultural pests.

To explore this hypothesis further, Knowledge Attitude-Practice (KAP) surveys were organized in the study sites (urban and rural areas) from july to October 2017. In each site, leaders of farmers organizations were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires that focused on the treatment strategies, and the use of insecticides in the farms. Furthermore, qualitative data were collected through direct observations, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. This was complemented by bioassay tests to assess the susceptibility of An. gambiae  to various insecticides such as deltamethrin (0.05 %), permethrin (0.75%), DDT (4%), and lambdacyhalothrine (0.05%).

Results from this study showed that: i)- More than 90% of the farmers interviewed used pesticides which were not registered for pest control; ii)- most of the farmers did not respect the dose recommended for treatment; iii)- An. gambiae populations developed a high resistance against pyrethroids and organochlorine regardless the areas of collection.

This study confirms once again that the use of insecticide in an improper manner to control vegetable pests in agriculture is one of the factors responsible for the selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors.

Measure must be taken by agriculture authorities to the management of pesticides in agriculture hence reducing the selection pressure of insecticides on An. gambiae populations.


Keywords


Benin; Natitingou; Insecticides; resistance; malaria ; Anopheles gambiae.

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